The cause of vitiligo is not known, but doctors and researchers have several different theories. There is strong evidence that people with vitiligo inherit a group of three genes that make them susceptible to depigmentation. The most widely accepted view is that the depigmentation occurs because vitiligo is an autoimmune disease – a disease in which a person’s immune system reacts against the body’s own organs or tissues. People’s bodies produce proteins called cytokines that, in vitiligo, alter their pigment-producing cells and cause these cells to die. Another theory is that melanocytes destroy themselves. Finally, some people have reported that a single event, such as sunburn or emotional distress, triggered vitiligo; however, these events have not been scientifically proven as causes of vitiligo. Results from a systematic review and meta analysis suggest that thyroid disease is a common comorbidity in people with vitiligo. Patients with vitiligo were 1.9 times more likely to have thyroid disease, 2.5 times more likely to have autoimmune thyroid disease, and 5.2 times more likely to test positive for thyroid specific antibodies than individuals without vitiligo. The team also noted that risk for thyroid disease seemed to increase with age in vitiligo patients. “Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of thyroid disease in vitiligo patients and should be attentive [to] symptoms of thyroid disease,” write Vrijman et al.
The success rate in treating this condition in conventional medicines is limited and sometimes, treatment follows with side effects. Though a few case records are documented in the past about the success of various homoeopathic medicines, yet they lack proper quantitative assessment. This is a case documented from the ongoing clinical research study on vitiligo at Clinical Research Unit (Homoeopathy), Chennai. The case was treated with Phosphorus over a period of 17 months with steady improvement which is evident from the photographs and improvement in baseline scores of presentation of the case. The outcome of the ongoing multicentric clinical research study will reveal further regarding the effect of homoeopathic medicine in Vitiligo and definitely shown leads in homoepathy responses over other treatment options available which have their limitations and minor to major sideeffects . associated clinicobiochemical reasons- presence of other autoimmune diseases like hyper/hypothyroidism/ polyarthritis /pernicious anemia and other related disorders will predispose a person to vitilago also and such disorders are more consonant with occurrence of vitilag. low folic acid ,zn, cu ,vit b12 according to some have been implicated with wider occurrence of vitilago.liver dysfunctions whether primary or secondary in origin have been associated with majority of vitilago acquired in 3rd/4 th decade of life . basic blood reporting and other disease related to be considered while diagnosing and treating a vitilago case.
As research suggests Vitilago essentially is an autoimmune disease .apart from contact with certain chemicals., it may arise from genetic, oxidative stress, neural, or viral causes also.